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What is spring steel?
Material for the production of technical springs is generally qualified as spring steel.
A technical spring is an elastic component, which is able to store an applied force effect.
Spring steel is also used when there are special requirements on rigidity or abrasion resistance.
From the technical point of view spring steel has to meet the following requirements:
A high technical elastic limit
- Which is the tension that can be applied on the material without a plastic deformation? Indicators are the yield point Re as well as the technical elastic limit Rp0,2
A high ultimate strain and contraction at fracture
- Ultimate strain => How high is the extension until rupture in relation to the original length?
- Contraction at fracture => How big is the change of the original cross section in comparison to the cross section at rupture?
Creep rupture strength and good endurance limit values
- Creep rupture strength => A kind of tensile strength taking in account temperature and time
- Endurance limit => How reacts the material on constantly changing, maximum stresses, when does plastic deformation begin?
Low surface decarburisation and a clean, free-from-fracture surface
- surface decarburisation makes the outer shell of the material soft (should be avoided)
The special properties of spring steel are accomplished by using different alloying elements.
- for stainless steels: Nickel
Spring steel is available as bars with round or flat cross section, as well as as wire, sheets or strips.
The following standards describe the different kinds of spring steel in the European Union:
- EN 10089 Hot rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs. Technical delivery conditions (replaces BS 970-2:1988)
- EN 10132-4 Cold rolled narrow steel strip for heat treatment. Technical delivery conditions. Spring steels and other applications (replaces BS 5770-1:1981 BS 5770-2:1981 BS 5770-3:1981)
- EN 10151 Stainless steel strip for springs. Technical delivery conditions (replaces BS 5770-4:1981)
- EN 10270-1 Steel wire for mechanical springs. Patented cold drawn unalloyed spring steel wire (replaces BS 5216:1991)
- EN 10270-2 Steel wire for mechanical springs. Oil hardened and tempered spring steel wire (replaces BS 2803:1980)
- EN 10270-3 Steel wire for mechanical springs. Stainless spring steel wire (replaces 2056:1991)
The corresponding dimension standards are given within the quality standards.
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